Prenatal, 2 x (60 Capsules)

$16.13

Prenatal, 2 x (60 Capsules)
UPC: 858765000809
ITEM: 58060

Prenatal by PN – 2 (60 caps) An All Natural Multivitamin/Minerals Specially Formulated to Support Prenatal Mom & Baby

Vitamin A is a crucial micronutrient for pregnant women and their fetuses. In addition to being essential for morphological and functional development and for ocular integrity, vitamin A exerts systemic effects on several fetal organs and on the fetal skeleton. Vitamin A requirements during pregnancy are therefore greater. Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anemia. Women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control were at decreased risk of having a placental abruption. Several studies have associated low maternal Vitamin D status to adverse outcomes in pregnancy, including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm births, low birth weight, and others. Recent scientific research data strongly support previous observational studies in that improving nutritional vitamin D status will improve birth outcomes. Vitamin E (tocopherol) is an essential, lipid soluble antioxidant. Because of its antioxidant properties and roles in anti-inflammatory processes and immune enhancement. Vitamin E has been hypothesized to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia and spontaneous preterm delivery as well as against morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight or preterm infants. The eight B vitamins (B Complex Vitamins) play an important role in supporting a healthy pregnancy. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy impacts fetal brain development. Vitamin B-1 (thiamine) is involved in the baby’s brain development. Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) contributes to healthy eyes and skin. Vitamin B-3 (niacin) improves digestion and nutrient metabolism. Vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid) plays an important role in the creation of essential hormones. Proper levels of Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) support the baby’s brain and nervous system development. It also is required for producing norepinephrine and serotonin, two important neurotransmitters (signal messengers). Pyridoxine has been found to help ease pregnancy symptoms of nausea and vomiting. B-12 (cobalamin) helps support the nervous system. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development. Additionally, studies have shown that vitamin B-12 supplement along with folic acid may help prevent birth defects such as spina bifida and defects that affect the spine and central nervous system. Studies show that vitamin B-12 deficiency can lead to early pregnancy loss, low birth weight, high blood pressure in the woman, and fetal abnormalities. The CDC urges all women of reproductive age to take 400 micrograms (mcg) of Folic Acid each day, in addition to consuming food with folate from a varied diet, to help prevent some major birth defects of the baby’s brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida). Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral required to regulate body temperature, nucleic acid, and protein synthesis with an important role in maintaining nerve and muscle cell electrical potentials. It may reduce fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia as well as increase birth weight. Poor maternal Zinc status has been associated with fetal loss, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, reduced birth weight, prolonged labor and preterm or post-term deliveries. A high fetal demand for Calcium in pregnancy is facilitated by profound physiological interactions between mother and fetus. The pregnant woman’s body provides daily doses between 50 and 330 mg to support the developing fetal skeleton. Calcium supplementation in pregnancy has been associated with a reduced risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Iron deficiency is common among pregnant women in industrialized countries, as shown by numerous studies. During pregnancy, more iron is needed primarily to supply the growing fetus and placenta and to increase the maternal red cell mass. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Copper is involved in the development of a baby’s heart, blood vessels, and skeletal and nervous systems.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This product has not been evaluated by the FDA. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a crucial micronutrient for pregnant women and their fetuses. In addition to being essential for morphological and functional development and for ocular integrity, vitamin A exerts systemic effects on several fetal organs and on the fetal skeleton. Vitamin A requirements during pregnancy are therefore greater.

Conceptually, the entire population may be exposed to the problem at any stage of the biological cycle, from embryonic/fetal life until old age. Nevertheless, it is in the short period of pregnancy/lactation that the risk of this deficiency increases [3,4,5]. This process is fundamentally triggered by biological factors: during pregnancy, there is a considerable increase in nutritional vitamin A requirements due to the double demand from the mother and her child; during lactation, exclusively breastfeeding should be the autonomous and complete source of fluids, energy, and nutrients for the infant [14]. Nevertheless, not only should the physiological nutritional demands of children in the first months and years of life be taken into consideration, but also the impact of these demands on the health/illness process that may continue into adult life, including preventing and delaying the onset of chronic noncommunicable diseases [39].

Pregnancy represents a nutritionally crucial period, either because of previous deficiencies being reduced or aggravated by the gestational process, or because excesses and inadequacies of nutrients in the diet may produce specific nutritional disorders [40]. Thus, nutrients including vitamin A can interfere with the occurrence or worsening of previous or coexisting diseases during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the postpartum.

Vitamin A deficiency is more frequent in the last quarter of pregnancy because of the physiological increase in maternal blood volume and accelerated fetal development in the final phase of pregnancy [41,42]. Pregnant women may be more prone to developing VAD during periods in which there is a shortage of foods rich in vitamin A or in the presence of infections, diabetes mellitus, or gestational diabetes [43,44,45].

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470929/

Vitamin C

Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anemia. Women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control were at decreased risk of having a placental abruption.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26415762

Vitamin D3

Several studies have associated low maternal vitamin D status to adverse outcomes in pregnancy, including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm births, low birth weight, and others. Recent scientific research data strongly support previous observational studies in that improving nutritional vitamin D status will improve birth outcomes. The data indicate that 4,000 IU/day vitamin D(3) during pregnancy will “normalize” vitamin D metabolism and improve birth outcomes including primary cesarean section and comorbidities of pregnancy with no risk of side effects.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27558700

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22623177/

Vitamin E

Vitamin E (tocopherol) is an essential, lipid soluble antioxidant. Because of its antioxidant properties and roles in anti-inflammatory processes and immune enhancement. Vitamin E has been hypothesized to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia and spontaneous preterm delivery as well as against morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight or preterm infants. Vitamin E supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications involving oxidative stress, such as pre-eclampsia. Women supplemented with vitamin E in combination with other supplements compared with placebo were at decreased risk of developing clinical pre-eclampsia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465220/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15846695/

B Complex Vitamins

The eight B vitamins (B Complex Vitamins) play an important role in supporting a healthy pregnancy. Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy impacts fetal brain development. Vitamin B-1 (thiamine) is involved in the baby’s brain development. Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin) contributes to healthy eyes and skin. Vitamin B-3 (niacin) improves digestion and nutrient metabolism. Vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid) plays an important role in the creation of essential hormones. Proper levels of Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine) support the baby’s brain and nervous system development. It also is required for producing norepinephrine and serotonin, two important neurotransmitters (signal messengers). Pyridoxine has been found to help ease pregnancy symptoms of nausea and vomiting. B-12 (cobalamin) helps support the nervous system. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development. Additionally, studies have shown that vitamin B-12 supplement along with folic acid may help prevent birth defects such as spina bifida and defects that affect the spine and central nervous system. Studies show that vitamin B-12 deficiency can lead to early pregnancy loss, low birth weight, high blood pressure in the woman, and fetal abnormalities.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27356547

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561829/

Folic Acid

The CDC urges all women of reproductive age to take 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid each day, in addition to consuming food with folate from a varied diet, to help prevent some major birth defects of the baby’s brain (anencephaly) and spine (spina bifida). Folate (vitamin B9) is an essential nutrient that is required for DNA replication and as a substrate for a range of enzymatic reactions involved in amino acid synthesis and vitamin metabolism. Demands for folate increase during pregnancy because it is also required for growth and development of the fetus. Folate deficiency has been associated with abnormalities in both mothers (anemia, peripheral neuropathy) and fetuses (congenital abnormalities). Pre-conception folic acid supplementation protects against fetal structural anomalies, including neural tube defects in the offspring and congenital heart defects. Recent data suggest that it may also protect against preterm birth.

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/folicacid/about.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218540/

Magnesium

Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral required to regulate body temperature, nucleic acid, and protein synthesis with an important role in maintaining nerve and muscle cell electrical potentials. It may reduce fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia as well as increase birth weight. Mg has a pivotal role in various body homeostasis, especially pregnancy period. Undoubtedly, the functioning of Mg in many different organs has already established. According to our result and other researchers’ findings, it should be said that Mg supplement during pregnancy could decrease the probability of occurrence of many complications of pregnancies. We believe that using the right dose of Mg plays a crucial role in the treatment of unwanted pregnancy disorders as well as preventing of preterm weight, low birth weight, and preeclampsia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590399/

Zinc

Poor maternal zinc status has been associated with fetal loss, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation, reduced birth weight, prolonged labor and preterm or post-term deliveries. Pregnant women, particularly those starting their pregnancy with marginal zinc status, are at increased risk of becoming zinc insufficient due, in part, to high fetal requirements for zinc [42]. Lactation can also deplete maternal zinc stores [43]. For these reasons, the RDA for zinc is higher for pregnant and lactating women than for other women.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3787719/

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/

Calcium

A high fetal demand for calcium in pregnancy is facilitated by profound physiological interactions between mother and fetus. The pregnant woman’s body provides daily doses between 50 and 330 mg to support the developing fetal skeleton. Calcium supplementation in pregnancy has been associated with a reduced risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, but this effect is only seen in persons with a low basal calcium intake. There are reports in literature that calcium supplementation in pregnancy protects against low-birthweight in newborns, which is defined as a birthweight of < 2500 g or that calcium supplementation lowers offspring blood pressure thus helping to prevent hypertension in the next generation. Therefore calcium supplementation is recommended in order to achieve a daily uptake of at least 1000 mg/day in pregnant women.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17685081

Iron

Iron deficiency is common among pregnant women in industrialized countries, as shown by numerous studies. During pregnancy, more iron is needed primarily to supply the growing fetus and placenta and to increase the maternal red cell mass. Among healthy human beings, pregnant women and rapidly growing infants are most vulnerable to iron deficiency. Both groups have to absorb substantially more iron than is lost from the body, and both are at a considerable risk of developing iron deficiency under ordinary dietary circumstances.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK235217/

Copper

Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Copper is involved in the development of a baby’s heart, blood vessels, and skeletal and nervous systems.  Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22462346

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This product has not been evaluated by the FDA. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This product has not been evaluated by the FDA. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.